Status in New England
Origin categories, as defined by Mass Nature are as follows:
- Native to New England. When this single word alone is applied to birds, it generally indicates that at least some individuals breed in New England and at least some individuals overwinter in New England.
- Native (Breeding): Used for birds or other taxa that breed in New England but overwinter outside of New England.
- Native (Nonbreeding/Overwintering): Used for birds or other taxa that overwinter in New England but breed outside of New England.
- Native Migrant: Used for birds or other taxa that migrate through New England but do not breed or overwinter there.
- Introduced (intentionally or unintentionally) to New England by people. (Note: a plant taxon may be native to one part of New England but introduced to another part of New England. Some populations or subspecies of organisms may be native to New England while others of the same species are non-native. If the word “introduced” is used alone it indicates that the taxon (including all its populations, subspecies, etc.) is not native to any part of New England).
- Recent: Used for birds or other taxa that have recently (during the colonial period or more recently) moved into New England by natural means (without being directly introduced by people; although changes in the environment caused by people may have been a factor in the species expansion or movement into New England).
- Recent (Breeding): Used for birds or other taxa that may have been previously only non-breeding/overwintering in New England but in recent times at least some have begun breeding in New England.
- Introduced Subspecies: Used for plants. Are subspecies that are not native to New England. This term is used instead of “Introduced” when a species has one or more subspecies that are native to New England and one or more subspecies that are not native to New England.
- Extirpated: Indicates a species that was native to New England, but was entirely eliminated from New England. For example, mountain lions and wolves were entirely eliminated from New England as a result of hunting.
- Extirpated (Breeding): Used for birds. Indicates that breeding populations were extirpated from New England (but nonbreeding individuals may have still been observed in New England).
- Reintroduced: Species was released back into the area where it formerly lived. For example, Wild Turkeys from New York were released in New England to replace populations that had been extirpated.
Note, in some cases a combination of factors may apply.
Example 1: The origin for the plant Prunella vulgaris is described as “Native, Introduced Subspecies” because there is a native subspecies in New England and a subspecies that is introduced (non-native) to New England.
Example 2: The origin for the plant Aristida basiramea is described as “Native, Introduced” because the species is native to part of New England but has been introduced to other parts of New England (where it did not originally occur).
Example 3: The origin for the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is described as “Native (Nonbreeding/Overwintering), Introduced, Recent (Breeding)” because it was originally an uncommon nonbreeding visitor to New England. Later it was introduced to New England for hunting purposes, and the introduced population became permanent residents. More recently naturally occurring populations of Mallards from the Midwest expanded their range eastward, into New England.
Sources of Origin Data
- Origin data for plants were obtained from Go Botany (https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/), which was adapted from BONAP (http://www.bonap.org/). In cases where the origin used by Mass Nature differs from these data, the source for the origin data is referenced on the database record.
- Origin data for wildlife were obtained from DeGraaf and Yamasaki (2001). Data for birds were also obtained from The Cornell Lab of Ornithology’s Birds of North America (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home).
- Origin data for insects were obtained from bugguide.net (http://bugguide.net/node/view/15740), the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (https://www.itis.gov/), and Discover Life (http://www.discoverlife.org/).
Invasive, Pest or Pathogen
This section indicates whether the particular species is considered invasive, potentially invasive, or a pest or pathogen in New England. If so, it provides sources for these classifications. The sources are listed below.
For Invasive Plants (terrestrial or aquatic)
- Massachusetts Invasive Plant Advisory Group (MIPAG). This group maintains lists of plant species in Massachusetts considered to be “Invasive”, “Likely Invasive”, and “Potentially Invasive”. It also has a list of Early Detection Priority Species. Website: http://www.massnrc.org/mipag/index.htm. Early detection priorities (as of March 16, 2011) are listed here: http://www.massnrc.org/mipag/docs/EarlyDetectionMIPAG.pdf. The lists are non-regulatory. Information accessed March 8, 2017.
- Massachusetts Prohibited Plant List. It is illegal to import, sell, and trade the plants on this list within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Website: http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/agr/farm-products/plants/massachusetts-prohibited-plant-list.html. Information accessed March 8, 2017.
- Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE). IPANE Species – Current Species List. IPANE has a list of plant species considered invasive or potentially invasive in New England. The list is non-regulatory. Note: this organization is not currently active; its database was absorbed into EDDMapS. Webpage: https://www.eddmaps.org/ipane/ipanespecies/current_inv.htm. Information accessed March 8, 2017.
- NH Prohibited Invasive Plant Species List. Updated 01/31/2017. The State of New Hampshire, under rule, Agr 3800 prohibits anyone from collecting, transporting, importing, exporting, moving, buying, selling, distributing, propagating, or transplanting any of the species on this list. Webpage: https://www.agriculture.nh.gov/publications-forms/documents/prohibited-invasive-species.pdf. Information accessed March 8, 2017.
- Maine List of Invasive Terrestrial Plant Species. Amended January 14, 2017. It is illegal to import, export, buy, sell, or intentionally propagate for sale or distribution the plants on this list within the state of Maine. Webpage: http://www.maine.gov/dacf/php/horticulture/documents/Chapter273.pdf. Information accessed March 9, 2017.
- Vermont Noxious Weeds. The State of Vermont prohibits the movement, sale, and distribution of all of the plants on this list. In addition, it is illegal to possess or cultivate those plants on this list that are designated as Class A Noxious Weeds. The Vermont Noxious Weeds list includes all taxa on the Federal Noxious Weed List (7 C.F.R. 360.200, as amended). Webpage: http://agriculture.vermont.gov/sites/ag/files/pdf/plant_protection_weed_management/noxious_weeds/NoxiousWeedsQuarantine.pdf. Webpage for Federal Noxious Weed List: http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c77fd6d3e6ee23739c063074d572a6f4&mc=true&node=pt7.5.360&rgn=div5#se7.5.360_1200 Information accessed March 9, 2017.
- Connecticut Invasive Plant List. Includes invasive and potentially invasive plants as determined by the Connecticut Invasive Plants Council in accordance with Connecticut General Statutes § 22a-381a through §22a-381d. A subset of the species on this list are prohibited from importation, movement, sale, purchase, transplanting, cultivation and distribution under CT General Statutes §22a-381d. Webpage: http://cipwg.uconn.edu/invasive_plant_list/. Information accessed March 9, 2017.
- Rhode Island Natural History Survey Invasive Plant Species List. Compiled by the Rhode Island Invasive Species Council. October 2013. Includes invasive species that are present and widespread as well as localized distribution and early detection species. The list is non-regulatory. Webpage: http://rinhs.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Rhode-Island-Invasive-Species_2013_b.pdf. Information accessed March 9, 2017.
For Other Terrestrial Invasive Species, Pests or Pathogens
- Massachusetts Introduced Pests Outreach Project. A collaboration between the Mass. Dept of Agricultural Resources and the UMass Extension Agriculture and Landscape Program. Types of pests listed include insects, weeds, diseases, a nematode, and a snail. Webpage containing lists of species and links to factsheets: http://massnrc.org/pests/factsheets.htm. Information accessed March 10, 2017.
- USDA Forest Service Pest Alerts. Northeastern Area. Forest and Tree Health Publications. Webpage: https://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/palerts.shtm. Information accessed March 10, 2017.
- UMass Extension. Landscape Nursery & Urban Forestry Program. Fact Sheets. For Insect and Mite pests and for Diseases. Webpage: https://ag.umass.edu/landscape/fact-sheets. Information accessed March 11, 2017.
- USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Hungry Pests. Top Invasive Pest Threats. Webpage: http://www.hungrypests.com/the-threat/. Information accessed March 22, 2017.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington: Buffington, M.L., Melika, G., Davis, M. and Elkinton, J.S. 2016. The Description of Zapatella davisae, New Species, (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) A Pest Gallwasp of Black Oak (Quercus velutina) in New England, USA. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 118(1):14-26.
- Cape Cod Cooperative Extension. Insect and Mites Fact Sheets. Black Oak Gall Wasp Fact Sheet. Dated 1/2/2014. Website: http://www.capecodextension.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Black-Oak-Gall-Wasp-Fact-Sheet2.pdf. Information accessed March 22, 2017.
- Cornell University Chestnut Blight Fact Sheet. Created 12/2007; Updated 1/2015. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic. Website: http://plantclinic.cornell.edu/factsheets/chestnutblight.pdf. Information accessed March 22, 2017.
- New York Department of Environmental Conservation. Oak Wilt Fact Sheet. Updated January 23, 2017. Website: http://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/lands_forests_pdf/oakwiltfs.pdf. Information accessed March 22, 2017.
- New York State Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Fact Sheets. Website: https://nysipm.cornell.edu/environment/invasive-species-exotic-pests. Information accessed March 22, 2017.
- USDA Invertebrate and Vertebrate Invasive Species Profiles. Webpage: https://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/animals/main.shtml. Information accessed March 22, 2017.
- Pest Tracker. Exotic Pest Reporting. Purdue University. Website: http://pest.ceris.purdue.edu/pests.php. Information accessed July 17, 2017.
For Marine and Aquatic Invasive Species
- Guide to Marine Invaders in the Gulf of Maine. Identification cards for established marine invasive species and for potential invaders. Produced by Salem Sound Coastwatch. Funded by the MA Office of Coastal Zone Management with funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Website: http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/czm/program-areas/marine-invasive-species/id.html. Information accessed March 22, 2017.
- Massachusetts Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan. 2002. Massachusetts Aquatic Invasive Species Working Group. Prepared by: Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management. December 2002. Website: http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/czm/program-areas/marine-invasive-species/plan.html. Information accessed March 22, 2017.
- MIT Sea Grant Hitchhikers Guide to Exotic Species. Second Edition. Webpage: https://massbay.mit.edu/exoticspecies/hitchhikers/index.html. Information accessed March 22, 2017.
- A Guide to Selected Invasive Non-native Aquatic Species in Massachusetts. Revised March 2007. Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation Lakes and Pond Program. Webpage: http://www.mass.gov/eea/docs/dcr/watersupply/lakepond/downloads/aquatic-species.pdf. Information accessed March 22, 2017.
- Northeast Aquatic Nuisance Species (NEANS) Panel. Aquatic Nuisance Species in the Northeast. Webpage: http://www.northeastans.org/aquatic-nuisance-species-in-the-northeast/. Information accessed March 22, 2017.
- USGS NAS-Nonindigenous Aquatic Species. Includes data on invertebrates, vertebrates and plants. Searchable by state and type of organism. Website: https://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx. Information accessed March 22, 2017.
Information on rarity is provided for any taxon considered by state or federal government to be rare or potentially rare or vulnerable in New England. This information includes the source (e.g., Massachusetts Endangered Species Act List), location for which the taxon is considered rare (e.g. within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts), and the rarity designation (e.g., Threatened).
Most taxa listed as rare within a state have two rarity descriptions: a state (subnational) rank (e.g., S1, S2, S3) and a state listing (e.g., Endangered, Threatened). Mass Nature provides the state listing designation if available. If there is no state listing designation, then Mass Nature provides the taxon’s state/subnational rank. You should refer to a state’s rare species list and associated regulations for definitions for rarity designations. Also, you should always check the original source (state or federal rarity listing) to make sure that the rarity designation you obtained from Mass Nature is accurate and up to date.
Although rarity categories in rare species lists vary somewhat from state to state, all states use the same conservation status ranks. The state/subnational ranks range from S1 (Critically Imperiled) to S5 (Secure). Some taxa have a status of "Unranked/Not State Ranked", which means their status within the state has not yet been assessed. Species with a status of "Unrankable” cannot currently be ranked due to conflicting or insufficient information. A rank of “Not Applicable” is used for species that are not considered to be suitable targets for conservation efforts. A full list of status ranks and their definitions may be found on the NatureServe Explorer website: http://explorer.natureserve.org/nsranks.htm.
Rarity designations were obtained from the following sources:
State Lists of Rare Species
- State of Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Bureau of Natural Resources. 2015. Connecticut’s Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Species 2015. Revised August 2015. Available from: http://www.ct.gov/deep/cwp/view.asp?a=2702&q=323486.
- Massachusetts List of Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Species (as defined in Section 10.60 of Chapter 321 of the Code of Massachusetts Regulations). March 10, 2017 Update. Available from: http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/species-information-and-conservation/mesa-list/list-of-rare-species-in-massachusetts.html.
- Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program (NHESP) Plant Watch List. (an unofficial, non-regulatory list of plants that NHESP is tracking. This list includes species believed to be rare, declining, or vulnerable, uncommon species with taxonomic uncertainties or uncertainties as to whether the species is native or introduced; species that were delisted but still require conservation attention; and species that have recently been discovered or rediscovered in Massachusetts.) Available from: http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/species-information-and-conservation/rare-plants/plants-watch-list.html. Accessed June 24, 2017.
- Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program (NHESP) Plant Historic List. (this list includes plant taxa that have not been documented in Massachusetts in the past 25 years.) Available from: http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/species-information-and-conservation/rare-plants/plants-historic-list.html. Accessed June 24, 2017.
- Maine Dept. of Inland Fisheries & Wildlife. 2015. State List of Endangered & Threatened Species. October 15, 2015. (This is a list of animal species considered to be threatened or endangered under Maine’s Endangered Species Act.) Available from: https://www1.maine.gov/ifw/wildlife/endangered/listed_species_me.htm.
- Maine Dept. of Inland Fisheries & Wildlife. 2011. Species of Special Concern. Current List. March 1, 2011. Available from: http://www.maine.gov/ifw/wildlife/endangered/specialconcern.htm. Accessed July 7, 2017.
- State of Maine, Maine’s Marine Endangered Species Act (ESA). Title 12: Conservation, Part 9: Marine Resources, Subpart 2: Licensing, Chapter 631: Endangered or Threatened Marine Species. Section 6975. List of state endangered and state threatened marine species. 2003, amended 2007. Available from: http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/12/title12sec6975.html.
- Maine Natural Areas Program. 2015. Elements of Natural Diversity. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Plant Taxa. September 2015. Available from: http://www.maine.gov/dacf/mnap/features/rare_plants/plantlist.htm.
- New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau. 2013. Rare Plant List for New Hampshire. Technical Copy. July 2013. Available from: http://www.nhdfl.org/about-forests-and-lands/bureaus/natural-heritage-bureau/publications/lists.aspx.
- New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau. 2013. Rare Plant Taxa (1 page version [by scientific name]. or Mini-booklet [by scientific name]). This list includes Watch and Indeterminate species. Available from: http://www.nhdfl.org/about-forests-and-lands/bureaus/natural-heritage-bureau/publications/lists.aspx. Note: this webpage also contains a link for “State Watch and Indeterminate Plant Species” but that list is older (from 2010) and out of date — it does not include changes made in 2013.
- New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau. 2013. Rare Animal List for New Hampshire. July 2013. Available from: http://www.nhdfl.org/about-forests-and-lands/bureaus/natural-heritage-bureau/publications/lists.aspx.
- Rhode Island Natural History Survey. 2016. Rhode Island Rare Plants 2016. From R.W. Enser 2007 and RI Wildlife Action Plan 2015, Appendix 1d. Available from: http://rinhs.org/biodiversity-data/info-on-rare-species-in-ri/.
- Enser, R.W. 2006. Rare Native Animals of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural Heritage Program. Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management. Providence, RI. Revised March 2006. Available from: http://rinhs.org/biodiversity-data/info-on-rare-species-in-ri/.
- Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department. 2017. Rare and Uncommon Animals of Vermont. Vermont Natural Heritage Inventory. 22 March 2017. Available from: http://www.vtfishandwildlife.com/common/pages/DisplayFile.aspx?itemId=229831.
- Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department. 2017. Rare and Uncommon Native Vascular Plants of Vermont. Vermont Natural Heritage Inventory. 24 March 2017. Available from: http://www.vtfishandwildlife.com/common/pages/DisplayFile.aspx?itemId=229833.
- Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department. 2017. Rare and Uncommon Bryophytes of Vermont. Vermont Natural Heritage Inventory. 22 March 2017. Available from: http://www.vtfishandwildlife.com/common/pages/DisplayFile.aspx?itemId=111330.
Federally Listed Species
- U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Endangered Species website. This website allows you to obtain lists of species protected under the Endangered Species Act that occur within a given state or look up the status of a given species. Website: https://www.fws.gov/endangered/index.html. Accessed July 1, 2017.
State Wildlife Action Plans
Note: These are abbreviated WAP (Wildlife Action Plan) or SWAP (State Wildlife Action Plan). The plans identify and provide guidance for the management and protection of Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) (also abbreviated GCN for Greatest Conservation Need).
- Maine Dept. of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife. 2015. Maine’s Wildlife Action Plan. Maine Dept. of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife, Augusta, ME. Available from: http://www.maine.gov/ifw/wildlife/reports/wap.html.
- Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. 2015. Massachusetts State Wildlife Action Plan 2015. Produced by the MA Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Department of Fish and Game, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs. Submitted October 1, 2015. Accepted November 8, 2016. Available from: http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/wildlife-habitat-conservation/state-wildlife-conservation-strategy.html.
- New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. 2015. New Hampshire Wildlife Action Plan. 2015 Revised Edition. NH Fish and Game Department, Concord, NH. Available from: http://www.wildlife.state.nh.us/wildlife/wap.html.
- Terwilliger Consulting, Inc. 2015. Connecticut Wildlife Action Plan. Prepared for the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Bureau of Natural Resources. Available from: http://www.ct.gov/deep/cwp/view.asp?a=2723&q=329520&deepNav_GID=1719#Review.
- Terwilliger Consulting, Inc. 2015. Rhode Island Wildlife Action Plan. Prepared for The Rhode Island Chapter of the Nature Conservancy for the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Division of Fish and Wildlife. Available from: http://www.dem.ri.gov/programs/fish-wildlife/wildlifehuntered/swap15.php.
- Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department. 2015. Vermont’s Wildlife Action Plan. Draft 10/1/2015. (some chapters, including Chapter 5: Species of Greatest Conservation Need [SGCN], dated September 2015). Available from: http://www.vtfishandwildlife.com/about_us/budget_and_planning/revising_vermont_s_wildlife_action_plan/draft_2015_wildlife_action_plan_for_public_review/.
DeGraaf, R.M. and M. Yamasaki. 2001. New England Wildlife. Habitat, Natural History, and Distribution. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 482 pages.
Last edited: 13 Sept. 2017